The accession of King Aha to the throne is often thought to define the start of the Egyptian state, with the new study suggesting (with 68 percent probability) that he became king between 3111 B. [See Photos of Egypt's Great Terrace of God] To create a more reliable timeline, archaeologists based at the University of Oxford have developed the most comprehensive chronological analyses of Early Egypt artifacts yet based on a computer model of existing and newly measured radiocarbon dates. Other existing settlements at the time were isolated city-states, but Egypt developed into a more complex and expansive settlement similar to modern countries today, Dee said.
The analyses suggest the rise to statehood occurred between 200 and 300 years faster than previously thought, beginning between 3800 B. The team hopes that their results will help inform future research on Early Egypt culture, but does not have plans to produce more dates from Egypt.
Userkaf (c.2494-2487) Sahure (c.2487-2475) Neferirkare Userkhau (c.2475-2455) Shepseskare (c.2455-2448) Raneferef (c.2448-2445) Niuserre (c.2445-2421) Menkauhor (c.2421-2413) Djedkare (c.2413-2381) Unas (Wenis) (c.2381-2345) Amenemhet I Sehetepibre (c.1991-1962) Senusret I Kheperkare(c.1962-1917) Amenemhet II Nubkaure (c.1917-1882) Senusret II Khakhperre (c.1882-1878) Senusret III Khakaure (c.1878-1841) Amenemhet III Nimaatre (c.1841-1796) Amenemhet IV Maakherure (c.1796-1790) Queen Sobeknerfu Neferusobek (c.1790-1786) Wegaf Khawitawire (c.1783 - 1779) Amenemhet V Sekhemkare Harnedjheriotef Hetepibre Sobekhotep I Khaankhre (ca.1750) Hor Amenemhet VII Sedjefakare Sobekhotep II Sekhemre-Khutawy (ca.1745) Khendjer Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Khasekhemre (c.1723-1713) Sobekhotep IV Merihotepre Khaneferre (c.1713) Iaib (c.1713-1703) Ay Merneferre (c.1703-1680) Neferhotep II and eight more kings Ahmose I Nebpehtyre (c.1570-1546) Amenhotep I Djeserkare (c.1546-1527) Thutmose I Akheperkare (c.1527-1515) Thutmose II Akheperenre (c.1515-1498) Queen Hatshepsut Maatkare (c.1498-1483) Thutmose III Menkhepere (c.1504-1450) Amenhotep II Akheperure (c.1450-1412) Thutmose IV Men-khepru-Re (1412-1402) Amenhotep III Nebmaatre (c.1402-1364) Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten Neferkheperure (c.1350-1334) Smenkhkare Ankhheperure (c.1334) Tutankhamen Nebkheperoure (c.1334-1325) Ay Kheperkheperure (c.1325-1321) Horemheb Djeserkheperure (c.1321-1293) Ramses I Menpehtyre (c.1293-1291) Seti I Merienptah Menmaatre (c.1291-1278) Ramses II Meriamen Usermaatre Setepenre (c.1279-1212) Merneptah Hetephermaat Baenre Meriamen (c.1212-1202) Amenmes Heqawaset Menmire Setepenre (c.1202-1199) Seti II Merenptah Userkheperure Setepenre (c.1199-1193) Merneptah Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre (c.1193-1187) Queen Twosret Setepenmut Sitre Meriamen (c.1187-1185) Sethnakhte Userkhaure Setepenre (c.1185-1182) Ramses III Usermaatre Meriamen (c.1182-1151) Ramses IV Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-Setepenamen (c.1151-1145) Ramses V Usermaatre Sekheperenre (c.1145-1141) Ramses VI Nebmaatre Meriamen (c.1141-1133) Ramses VII Usermaatre Setepenre Meriamen (c.1133-1128) Ramses VIII Usermaatre Akhenamen (c.1128-1126) Ramses IX Neferkare Setepenre (c.1126-1108) Ramses X Khepermaatre Setepenptah (c.1108-1098) Ramses XI Menmaatre Setepenptah (c.1098-1070) Herihor Siamun Hemnetjertepyenamun (c.1080-1074) Piankh (c.1074-1070) Pinedjem I Meriamen Khakheperre Setepenamun (c.1070-1032) Masaherta (c.1054-1046) Djedkhonsefankh (c.1046-1045) Menkheperre (c.1045-992) Smendes II (c.992-990) Pinedjem II (c.990-969) Psusennes (c.969-959) Nesbanebded Hedjkheperre Setepenre (Smendes I) (c.1070-1043) Nephercheres (Neferkare-hekawise Amenemnisu Meramun (c.1043-1039) Psusennes I Akheperre Setepenamun (c.1039-1000) Amenemope Usimare Setepenamun (c.1000-991) Osorkon the elder (Osochor) (c.991-985) Psinaches (c.985-976) Psusennes II Titkheprure (c.976-962) Siamun Nutekheperre Setepenamun Siamun Meramun (c.962-945) Sheshonq I Hedjkheperre Setepenre (c.945-924) Osorkon I Sekhemkheperre Setepenre (c.924889) Sheshonq II Hekakheperre Setepenre (ca.
890) Takelot I Usimare (c.889874) Osorkon II Usimare Setepenamun (c.874850) Harsiese (ca.
One radioactive, or unstable, carbon isotope is C14, which decays over time and therefore provides scientists with a kind of clock for measuring the age of organic material.
The earliest experiments in radiocarbon dating were done on ancient material from Egypt. Libby’s team obtained acacia wood from the 3rd Dynasty Step Pyramid of Djoser to test a hypothesis they had developed.
The concept is most fully explained in History: Fiction or Science? The New Chronology also contains a reconstruction, an alternative chronology, radically shorter than the standard historical timeline, because all ancient history is "folded" onto the Middle Ages.
According to Fomenko's claims, the written history of humankind goes only as far back as AD 800, there is almost no information about events between AD 800–1000, and most known historical events took place in AD 1000–1500.
The ratio of radiocarbon to stable carbon atoms in the atmosphere has varied in the past.
Pharaohs are missing or have been left out above all in the lists of the Early and the intermediate Periods.
All the dates until the Late Period should be taken with a grain of salt, some think a good deal more than just a grain. According to research done by Michael Dee and others of the Research Laboratory for Archaeology of Oxford University in 2013 using carbon dating, the accession to the throne of Pharaoh Aha should, with a probability of 68 percent, be dated to a time between 31.
Plants obtain all their carbon atoms from the atmosphere.
Archaeologists believe Egypt’s large pyramids are the work of the Old Kingdom society that rose to prominence in the Nile Valley after 3000 B. Historical analysis tells us that the Egyptians built the Giza Pyramids in a span of 85 years between 25 BC.